The way Concrete dries, cures and hydrates (3 distinct actions) involves the release of water/moisture. A normal 0.45 w/cm ratio mix design will have approximately 11% air voids or capillaries once dried (at around 28 days).A From early testing we've learned that a "disrupted" capillary system will lower the permeance (permeability/resistivity) greatly....and thus inhibit the process of chloride ion penetration inwards towards the steel.B Proper concrete cover & an Ultra Low Permeability Concrete should be the goals.C
Just as the nano-structure of our cells combines to make organs and systems in our body....so does the nano-structure (~ 5 microns) of concrete binder (cement, water & very small sand) make up the most immense and critical infrastructure we depend on to move us and everything we consume in our daily lives. Concrete has a Service Life to it - our technology looks to stretch that service life....
Just as long as concrete has been around, we've been adding silicates to the surface of concrete in an effort to densify and water proof concrete. This technology is simply the next step - a refinement of Nano-Silicas integrally added to concrete. All the wonderful characteristics enjoyed at the "topical" level are now part of a triaxial, three-deminsional system - that can't be misplaced. This technology has been around the whole time - the last missing piece....
A - Materials of Cement Science Primer. Principal Investigators: Professors Hamlin Jennings and Jeffery Thomas; http://www.iti.northwestern.edu/publications/utc/tea-21/fr-5-jennings-thomas.pdf Page 55.
B - Chemistry of Cement; Powers, Copeland & Mann. Originally printed in 1955. https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/MONO/nbsmonograph43v2.pdf pages 592-593 (35 of pdf)
C - Portland Cement Association - https://www.cement.org/learn/concrete-technology/durability/corrosion-of-embedded-materials
The Family of Vapor Lock concrete admixtures all use the fundamental basis-of-design = a complex formula of nano-silicas (including Lithium) that have a pozzolonic reaction with calcium hydroxide (a by-product of cement chemistry) and Water of Convenience (not bound by cement hydration) to produce relatively large amounts of additional c-s-h (calcium silicate hydrate) gel. This is a similiar, but faster and more complete process to that of fly ash and other SCMs. The extra c-s-h produced does two things; greatly and permanently disrupts the formation of a capillary system within the cement matrix (binder) and regulates the release of water leaving the cement matrix - providing for an 'Internal Cure' component. This allows for greater cement particle hydration with superior product development. This technology is the foundation of Vapor Lock Integral Concrete Admixtures. From here, several distinct formulations are precisely honed to properly address different areas of concrete construction - sorted in the PRODUCTS section above. This same technology allows for Soils Stabilization & Material Stockpile control systems. And complimented by the Industry's most ingenious Disruptive Membrane System for high-risk water and gas containment. Finally, the most advanced Macro Synthetic Fiber reinforcement systems available.
NANO/MICRO SILICA TECHNOLOGY
- is an effective technology at naturally and permanently disrupting
the normal capillary system in concrete, greatly inhibiting the "Transportability" mechanism in reinforced concrete. All the significant areas of corrosion are addressed and can be inhibited;
Chloride Ion Intrusion/Chloride Corrosion
Calcium Oxychloride Attack
Alkali Silica Reaction
Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC)
To better understand and drive the innovation and testing of Integrally adding Nano Silicas to concrete to permanently disrupt the capillary system, we've participated in over 90 specific committees through the American Concrete Institute, ASTM C09 - Concrete & Aggregates, ASTM D08 - Roofing & Waterproofing, and ASTM G01 - Corrosion of Metals. To date, we are most pleased with Dr. Tyler Ley's Penetration Testing in discerning best a "disrupted capillary system" in a concrete specimen - https://youtu.be/S8oc4rsleAY
Please review and understand our protocols and results as we illustrate our technology the best way we can, with the latest -
Nano Computed Tomography (nCT) Test results (Modified ASTM C1152)
ASTM C876 Standard Test Method for Corrosion Potentials of
Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete (Half Cell Readings)
If you are a concrete and/or cement researcher and have interest in research involving a disrupted capillary system and/or superior cement pore development through calcium hydroxide consumption- we encourage you to reach out. We are always on the look out for researchers that value the benefit of nano-level studies and nano-silicas in Concrete; to either publish or co-author on the subject. -- JK